DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2349-3291.ijcp20174758

A study of blood pressure in school children between the age of 6-12 years in Chennai, India: a cross sectional study

Madhivanan S., Harikrishnan E., Kumarasamy K.

Abstract


Background: Blood pressure measurements in childhood are an important clinical examination. Present study was done to evaluate the normal range of blood pressure (BP) in children aged 6-12 years and to find its relationship with regard to age, sex, height and weight criteria and comparing the values with the available standards.

Methods: This prospective cross-sectional study was done in primary and middle schools of Chennai from January 2016 to May 2017. Three readings of blood pressure were recorded for each subject and were correlated with age, gender, socioeconomic status and anthropometry. Data was analysed on SPSS 20.0. P value of <0.05 was considered significant

Results: A total of 2002 children (1026 boys, 976 girls) of age between 6-12 years were examined over 18 months. There was an upward trend in both systolic (r = 0.437, P<0.001) and diastolic BP (r = 0.386, P <0.001) with age. There was no statistically significant difference in mean systolic and diastolic BP with gender (P = 0.10), weight (P = 0.10) and height (P = 0.10). There was a statistically significant difference between the mean systolic and diastolic BP between low and high socio-economic groups (P <0.0001). The proportion of children with hypertension was 9.54% with a slight female preponderance.

Conclusions: Blood pressure measurement in children is pivotal in clinical examination. It shows a linear relationship with age and varies across socio-economic status. Periodic recording of BP would enable identify hypertension at an early age.


Keywords


Blood Pressure, Diastolic BP, Hypertension, Systolic BP

Full Text:

PDF

References


Sinaiko AR, Marino G, Prinear RS. University of Minnesota. Prevalence of significant hypertension in Junior High School Aged children. The children and Adolescent BP program. Pediatr. 1989;114:664-9.

Verma M, Chhatwal J, George SM. Biophysical profile of blood pressure in school children. Indian Pediatr. 1995;32:749-54.

Londe S. Blood pressure standard for children determined under office condition. Clin Paediatr. 1968;7:400-3.

Kaplan and Lyons. Nelson's text book of paediatrics. 7th edition, Philadelphia, WB Saunders; 960:822.

Stocks P, Karn MN. Blood pressure in early life. The University Press; 1924.

Richey HG. The blood pressure in boys and girls before and after puberty: Its relation to growth and to maturity. Am J Dis Children. 1931;42(6):1281-330.

Hahn L. The relation of blood pressure to weight, height and body surface area in schoolboys aged 11 to 15 years. Arch Dis Childhood. 1952;27(131):43.

Report of the second task force on B.P. control in children. Paediatr. 1987;79:l-25.

Chahar CK, Shekhawat V, Mighani V, Gupta BD. A study of blood pressure in school children at Bikaner. Indian J Paediatr. 1982;49:79l-4.

Agarwal VK, Sharan R, Srivastava AK, Kumar P, Pandey CM. Blood pressure profile in children of age 3-15 years. Indian Pediatr. 1983;20:921-5.

Laroia D, Shanna M. Diwedi V, Belapurkar KM. Mathur PS. Profile of blood pressure in normal school children. Indian Paediatr, 1989, 26:531-536.

Gupta AK, Ahamed AJ. Normal BP and the evaluation of sustained blood pressure elevation in childhood. Indian Paediatr. I990;27:32-41.

Gupta AK. Influence of family history of morbid cardiovascular events on blood pressure levels of school children. Indian Paediatr. 1991;28:131-9.

Verma M, Chhatwal J, George SM. Biophysical profile of blood pressure in school children. Indian Paediatr. 1995,32:749-53.

Anand NK, Tandon L. Prevalence of hypertension in school going children. Indian Paediatr. 1996;38:377-81.

Blumenthal S, Pepps R. Heavenrich R. Report of task force of blood pressure control in children. Paediatr. 1977;59:797-820.

Sachdev Y. Normal blood pressure and hypertension. Indian Paediatr. 1984;21:41-9.

Aggarwal R. Prevalence of hypertension in apparently healthy school children. Indian Paediatr. 1982;19:779-84.

Haggerty RD, Maroney MW, Nadas AS. Essential hypertension in infancy and childhood. Differential diagnosis and therapy. Amer J Dis Child 1956;92:535-49.

Weiss. Blood pressure levels in children 6-11 years in relationship to age, sex, race and socio-economic status, United states. Vital and Health State Series. I963;11(135):2-38.

Feber HK, James CA. Blood pressure in normal children. Clinical application of statistical methods to the interpretation of deviation from the normal average. Am J Dis Child. 1921;22:7-28.

Dube SK, Kapoor S, Ratner H, Tunick FL. Blood pressure studies in black children. Am J Dis Child. 1975;129:177-80.

Rames LK, Clarke WR, Connor WE, Reiter MA, Lauer RM. Normal blood pressure and evaluation of sustained blood pressure elevation in childhood. The Muscatine study. Paediatr. 1978,61:245-7.

Londe S, Bourgoignie JJ, Robson AM, Goldring D. Hypertension in apparently normal children. J Pediatr. 1971;78(4):569-77.

Levine, CS, Lewy, JE, New MI. Hypertension in high school students. New York State J Med. 1976;76:40-4.

Whyte HM. Behind the adipose curtain. Australia and New Guinea. Am. J Cardiol. 1965;15:66-80.

Alexander JK. Obesity and circulation Mod. Concepts. Cardiovas Dis. 1963;32:799-803.

Nelson WE. Text book of Paediatrics. 18th Ed. WB Saunders Company; 1989

Keane J, Keane J, Fyler D, Fyler D, Lock J, Lock J. Pediatnc cardiology -NADA‘s, 2nd Ed. Section IV Chapter 11. Saunders;2006:98.

Hall JE, Guyton AC. Eds. Guyton and Hall Textbook of Medical Physiology. 8th edition. WB Saunders; 1996:240.

Wright S, Keele CA. Eds. Text book of physiology, 13th Edition. Oxford Medical Publication; 1982:124-5.

Ganong W. Review of medial physiology. 23rd Ed. Appleton and Lange. Chapter 32. McGraw-Hill Medical;2009:547