Spectrum of congenital heart disease in neonates in a tertiary care centre of Northern India

Mahvish Qazi, Najmus Saqib


Background: Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are an important cause of mortality and morbidity in children representing a major global health burden. Not much of Indian data is available particularly from this part of the country. So, authors conduct a retrospective study to know the spectrum of congenital heart disease in our set up.

Methods: A retrospective hospital based study was carried out in the neonatal intensive care unit of SMGS Hospital, Jammu from January 2017 until December 2017 to see the spectrum of CHD.

Results: There were 5552 neonates admitted during the study period out of which 68 were found to have CHD. The prevalence was 12.24 per 1000 admitted neonates. Out of 68 admitted neonates, 41were males (60.3 %) and 27 females (39.7%). Clinically Respiratory distress (51.47%) was the commonest presenting symptom followed by Cyanosis (16.18%), refusal of feed (13.23%) and murmer (10.3%).46 (67.65%) newborn had acyanotic and 22 (32.35%) cyanotic congenital heart lesions. Ventricular septal defect (27.94%) was the commonest acyanotic congenital heart defects whereas Tetrology of Fallot (14.70%) was the commonest cyanotic congenital heart diseases. Cleft lip and Cleft Palate was found in 12.5% followed by Down’s syndrome in 3.57% of cases of newborns with CHD. The mode of delivery was spontaneous in 64.71% followed by Elective LSCS were 23.53% and Emergency LSCS were 11.76%.

Conclusions: There is an urgent need for government and non‑government organizations to establish well‑equipped cardiothoracic surgical centers across the country especially in Jammu to cater for children with CHDs.


Congenital heart disease, Echocardiography, Neonates, Prevalence

Full Text:



Mitchell SC, Korones SB, Berendes HW. Congenital heart disease in 56, 109 births. Incidence and natural history. Circulation. 1971;43:323-32.

Dolk H, Loane M, Garne E. For the European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies (EUROCAT) working Group. Congenital heart defects in Europe:prevalence and perinatal mortality, 2000-2005. Circulation. 2011;123:841-9.

Samanek M, Voriskova M. Congenital heart disease among 815,569 children born between 1980 and 1990 and their 15 year survival: a prospective Bohemia survival study. Pediatr Cardiol. 1999;20:411-17.

Wren C, Richmond S, Donaldson L. Presentation of congenital heart disease in infancy: implications for routine examination. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 1999;80:49-53.

Behrman RE, Kliegman RM, Jenson HB. Congenital heart disease. In: Nelson textbook of Pediatrics, 16th edn. Eds., Harcourt Asia Pvt. Ltd;2000:1362-63.

Fyler DC, Buckley LP, Hellenbrand WE, Cohn HE. Report of the New England regional infant caring Program. Pediatrics. 1980;65:375-461.

Brassili A, Mokhtar SA, Dabous NI, Zaher SR, Mokhtar MM, Zaki A. Congenital heart disease among school children in Alexandria, Egypt: an overview on prevalence and relative frequencies. J Trop Pediatr. 2000;46:357-62.

Kapoor R, Gupta S. Prevalence of Congenital Heart Disease, Kanpur, India. Indian Pediatr. 2008;45:309-11.

Vashishta VM, Kalra A, Kalra K, Jain VK. Prevalence of congenital heart disease. Indian Pediatr. 1993;30:1337-40.

Khalil A, Aggarwal R, Thirupuram S, Arora R. Incidence of congenital heart disease among hospital live births in India. Indian Pediatr. 1994;31:519-26

Kinare SG, Sharma S. Congenital Heart Diseasein 1st year of life (an autopsy study of 270 cases). Ind J Paed. 1981;48:745-54.

Saxena A. Congenital heart disease in india: a status report. Ind J Paed. 2005;72:595-8.

Sawant SP, Amin AS, Bhat M. Prevalence, pattern and outcome of congenital heart disease in Bhabha Atomic Research Centre Hospital, Mumbai. Indian J Pediatr. 2013;80:286-91.

Bhat NK, Dhar M, Kumar R, Patel A, Rawat A, Kalra BP. Prevalence and pattern of congenital heart disease in Uttarakhand, India. Indian J Pediatr. 2013;80:281-5.

Shah GS, Singh MK, Pandey TR, Kalakheti BK, Bhandari GP. Incidence of congenital heart disease in tertiary care hospital. Kathmandu Univ Med J. 2008;6(1):33-6.

Islam MN, Hussain MA, Khaleque MA, Das MK, Khan MRH, Bari MS et al. Prevalence of congenital Heart Disease in Neopnatal in a Tertiary Level Hospital. NJMS. 2013;2(2):91-5.

Abqari S, Gupta A, Shahab T, Rabbani MU, Ali SM, Firdaus U. Profile and risk factors for congenital heart defects, a study in a tertiary care hospital. Annals Pediatric Cardiol. 2016;9(3):216-21.

Ashraf M, Chowdhary J, Khajuria K, Reyaz AM. Spectrum of congenital heart diseases in Kashmir, India. Indian Pediatr. 2009;46:1107-8.

Jennifer HK, Anne MA, Jack R. Effect of prenatal diagnosis on outcome in patients with congenital heart disease. Neoreviews. 2005;6:326-31.

Moller JH, Moodie DS, Blees M, Norton JB, Nouri S. Symptomatic heart disease in infants: Comparison of three studies performed during1969-1987. Pediatr Cardiol. 1995;16:216-22.

Rahman S, Ahmed MN, Rahmatullah KHI. The prevalence of congenital heart diseases diagnosed by Non-invasive technique- Ten years study in Bangladesh. DS (Child) HJ. 1992;8:5-15.

Hoffman JIE. Congenital heart disease: Prevalence and inheritence. Pediatr Clin North Am. 1990;37:25-43.

Fatema NN, Chowdhury RB, Chowdhury L. Prevalence of congenital heart disease among hospital live birth in a tertiary hospital of Bangladesh. CVJ. 2008;1:14-20.