DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2349-3291.ijcp20183877

Clinical profile, sociodemographic and biochemical determinants of PICA among 1 to 5 aged children attending a tertiary care hospital

Sekar Pasupathy, Srujana Swarna

Abstract


Background: The term PICA has been derived from the Latin word “MAGPIE” which is a bird that has omnivorous habit and is known for its indiscriminate preference for foods and non-foods. The aim of this study was to study the clinical profile and to determine the relationship between pica and various socio demographic determinants, serum levels of iron, zinc and calcium.

Methods: This study was conducted in 51 children with PICA belonging to 1-5 years and 51 controls of same age and sex who were attending pediatrics department in SRM medical college hospital and research centre. The data regarding clinical manifestations and sociodemographic determinants were collected by questionnaires to mother. The blood samples were collected from each child involved in the study after getting consent. Then the data was analyzed by using chi-square, unpaired ‘t’ test and ANOVA analysis.

Results: This study shows that PICA is commonly seen in males, bottle fed children and those belonging to nuclear family. Family history of PICA had significant association with PICA in children (p=0.05). Soil is the most common type of pica (49%) followed by paper and stone. The most common presentation is poor appetite (43.1%). The serum levels of iron and zinc were significantly low when compared to controls (P <0.001). The serum levels of iron in anemic children with pica are also significantly lower than pica children with no anemia. No significant association is seen between serum iron and zinc with number of substances or duration of ingestion or frequency of ingestion (P >0.05).

Conclusions: Family history of PICA, bottle feeding, joint family has significant association with pica. Soil is the most common type of PICA. Poor appetite is the most common clinical manifestation. There is significant association between low serum levels of iron and zinc with PICA.


Keywords


Calcium, Iron, Mental retardation, PICA, Zinc

Full Text:

PDF

References


Bhatia MSJK. Pica as Culture Bound syndrome. Delhi Psychiatric J. 2014;17:144-7.

Edward AR, John HP, Anne V. Pica common but commonly missed. J Am Board Fam Med. 2000;13(5):353-8.

Emily R, David R, Robert M, Kliegman, Bonita F, Joseph WS, et al. Nelson Textbook of pediatrics. 19th Edition. Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc; 2011;21(2):70-72.

Cooper M. Pica. Springfield Illinois. 1960;487-488.

Barltrop D. The prevalence of Pica. Arch Pediatr Adolescent Med. 1966;112(2):116.

Millica F, Layman EM, Lourie RS, Takahashi LY, Dublin CC. Prevalence of ingestion and mouthing of nonedible substances by children. Clin Proc Child hosp Wash. 1962;18:207-14.

Geissler PB, Mwanii DL, Thiong’ o F, Friis H. Geophagy among school children in western Kenya. Trop Med Int Health. 1998;7:624-30.

Blinder BJ, Goodman SL, Henderson P. Pica: The eating disorders. A Critical Review of Diagnosis and Treatment. 1988;331-43.

Woywodt A, Kiss A. Geophagia: the history of earth-eating. JRSM. 2002;95(3):143-6.

Lacey EP. Broadening the perspective of pica: literature review. Public Health Rep. 1990;105:29-35.

Nchito M, Geissler PW, Mubila L, Friis H, Olsen A. Effects of iron and multi nutrient supplementation on Geophagia: A two by two factorial study among Zambian school children in Lusaka. Royal Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2004;98(4):218-27.

Singhi S, Ravishanker R, Singhi P, Nath R. Low plasma zinc and iron in pica. Indian J Pediatr. 2003;70(2):139-43.

Gupta RK. Gupta R. Clinical Profile of Pica in Childhood. J Med Edu Res. 2005;7(2):61-3.

El Nemer F. Prevalence of Pica among children attending pediatrics clinic at El-Menoufiya University Hospital. Am J BioSci. 2014;2(4):147.

Gupta N, Sood S. The serum levels of Iron, Zinc, Calcium and Selenium in children with pica. Int J Basic Applied Physiol. 2014;3(1):151-6.

Acharya U. Serum levels of iron, zinc and lead in patients of Pica: a prospective study. Rajasthan Med J Combined Issue. 2007:11-14.

Al-Sawaf FB. Pica in children. Iraqi J Med Sci. 2004;3(2):179-81.