DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2349-3291.ijcp20184702

Air pollution and its association with respiratory dysfunction among healthy adolescents: a cross sectional study from South Western Punjab, India

Harshvardhan Gupta, Himanshu Jain, Varun Kaul, Gurmeet Kaur Sethi, Rajeev Sharma, Arzoo Allahabadi

Abstract


Background: This study has been performed to compare the pulmonary functions of healthy adolescents studying in schools situated in highly polluted areas with those studying in schools of low polluted areas of south western Punjab.

Methods: This study was conducted in various schools located at Faridkot and Bathinda city. These places had been identified by the Punjab Pollution Control Board (PPCB) as having low and high air pollution levels respectively. Study Population divided into two groups that is Group A: 300 children from schools situated in Bathinda city. Group B:  301 children from schools situated in Faridkot city. Spiro Excel spirometer was used, and following parameters were obtained: FVC, FEV₁, FEV₁% (relation of FEV₁ to FVC), PEFR, FEF25-75%.

Results: FVC was low in males and females in the high polluted group as compared in the low polluted group (p = 0.042; significant; males) (p = 0.039; significant; females). FEV₁ was low in males and females in high polluted group as compared in low polluted group (p = 0.003; significant; males) (p = 0.026; significant; females). In this study only, males showed a significant fall in mean percentage of FEF25-75%. PEFR was low in males in high polluted group as compared to that in low polluted group (p = 0.007; significant) while in females it was insignificant.

Conclusions: It is concluded that in South Western Punjab, air pollution has detrimental effect on pulmonary functions (FVC, FEV₁, FEV₁%, FEF25-75% and PEFR) in healthy adolescents.


Keywords


Pulmonary Function, FVC, FEV1, FEV1 %, FEF₂₅₋₇₅%, PEFR.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Dockery DW, Landrigan PJ, Etzel RA. Outdoor Air pollution in Textbook of Children’s environmental health. Oxford University press. 2014; 1st ed: 201-209.

Kim JJ. American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Environmental Health. Ambient air pollution: health hazards to children. Pediatr. 2004;114(6):1699-707.

Dockery DW, Speizer FE, Stram DO, Ware JH, Spengler JD, Ferris BG. Effects of inhalable particles on respiratory health of children, Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 1989;139(3):587-94.

Gouveia N, Bremner SA, Novaes HM. Association between Ambient air pollution and birth weight in sao Paulo, Brazil. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2004;58(1):11-7.

Wang X, Ding H, Ryan L, Xu X. Association between air pollution and low birth weight: a community- based study. Environ. Health Perspect. 1997;105(5):514-20.

Vriens A, Nawrot TS, Saenen ND, Provost EB, Kicinski M, Lefebvre W, et al. Recent exposure to ultrafine particles in school children alters miR-222 expression in the extracellular fraction of saliva. Environ Health. 2016;15(1):80.

Haddard GG, Green TP. Diagnostic Approach to Respiratory Disease. (Ed) Kleigman RM, Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, Schor NF and Behrman RE in Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics, Saunders Elsevier 19th Ed 2011;2:1421.

Hsiue TR, Lee SS, Chen HI. Effects of air pollution from wire reclamation incineration on pulmonary function in children. Chest. 1991;100(3):698-702.

Wang JY, Hsiue TR, Chen HI. Bronchial responsiveness in an area of air pollution resulting from wire reclamation. Arch. Dis. child. 1992;67(4):488-90.

Gauderman WJ, McConnell R, Gilliland F, London S, Thomas D, Avol E, et al. Association between Air Pollution and Lung Function Growth in Southern California Children. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 2000;162(4):1383-90.

He QQ, Wong TW, Du L, Jiang ZQ, Gao Y, Qiu H, et al. Effects of ambient air pollution on lung function growth in Chinese school children. Respir. Med. 2010;104(10):1512-20.

Gao Y, Chan EY, Li LP, He QQ, Wong TW. Chronic effects of air pollution on lung function among Chinese children. Arch. Dis. Child. 2013;98(2):128-35.

Linares B, Guizar JM, Amador N, Garcia A, Miranda V, Perez JR, et al. Impact of air pollution on pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms in children. Longitudinal repeated-measures study. BMC Pulm Med. 2010;10:62.

Knudson RJ, Lebowitz MD, Holdberg CJ, Burrows B. Changes in the normal maximal expiratory flow-volume curve with growth and aging. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1983;127:725-34.