DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2349-3291.ijcp20185092

A prospective study on biochemical disturbances among cases of acute diarrhoea in children attending a tertiary care hospital of South India

Korsipati Ankireddy, Tenali Ravi Kumar

Abstract


Background: Diarrhoea is one of the commonest clinical entities encountered regularly in clinical practice. In India, at least 1.5 million children die due to acute diarrhoea per year. Timely recognition, high index of suspicion and thorough understanding of various clinical signs in different types of dehydration is necessary in preventing the deaths. The present study focuses on the different types of biochemical alterations and electrolyte disturbances in cases of acute diarrhoea among children.

Methods: A prospective study with ethical committee consent was done at a tertiary care hospital for two years in department of Paediatrics. All cases of acute diarrhoea attending with signs and symptoms of moderate and severe dehydration were included. Clinical history and necessary biochemical investigations including serum electrolytes were performed. The results and data were entered in an excel sheet and analysed.

Results: 250 cases were enrolled in the study with males (57.6%) and females (42.4%). 1month to 5 years with 84 cases (33.6%) was the most common age group with mean age of 11.48± 2.4 years. History of passage of loose motions was with a frequency ranging from 6-12 /day with a mean frequency was 8.12/day. 80.8%cases had some kind of electrolyte abnormality with majority having isolated Hyponatremia and a combined Hyponatremia and Hypokalemia (33.6%) each.

Conclusions: Diarrhoeal disorders can be easily prevented with proper hand hygiene practices, health awareness programmes, increased breast-feeding practices and proper disinfection of water. Hyponatremia, hypokalemia, combined Hyponatremia and hypokalemia are major electrolyte abnormalities in cases of diarrhoea.


Keywords


Dehydration, Diarrhoea, Hypokalemia, Hyponatremia

Full Text:

PDF

References


Lakshminarayanan S, Jayalakshmy R. Diarrheal diseases among children in India: Current scenario and future perspectives. J Nat Sci Biol Med. 2015;6(1):24-8.

Million Death Study Collaborators. Bassani DG, Kumar R, Awasthi S, Morris SK, Paul VK, et al. Causes of neonatal and child mortality in India: A nationally representative mortality survey. Lancet. 2010;376(9755):1853–60.

Estimation of the Burden of Diarrhoeal diseases in India, NICED Kolkata Available at http://www.whoindia.org/linkfiles/commision on macroeconomic and health Bg P2 Estimation of the burden of diarrhoeal diseases in India.Pdf.

Kumar SG, Subitha L. Diarrhoeal diseases in developing countries: A situational analysis. Kathmandu Univ Med J (KUMJ) 2012;38(2):83-8.

Bulletin of the World Health Organ: The global burden of diarrhoeal disease: Vol.81: No.3: Geneva 2015.

Behera SK, Mohapatra SS, Kar S, Das D, Panda C Incidence and mortality of hospitalized diarrhoea cases. Part III. Indian Pediatr 1980.17(7):607-12.

Subba Rao SD, Thomas B. Electrolyte abnormalities in children admitted to paediatric intensive care unit. Indian Pediatr. 2000;37(12):1348-53.

Devignam N Mala, N Shafi Ahmad, Jagdish Shankar. Measles associated diarrhoea and Pneumonia in south India. Indian Pediatric. 1994;3:35.

Shah GS, Das BK, Kumar S, Singh MK, Bhandari GP. Acid base and electrolyte disturbance in diarrhoea. Kathmandu Univ Med J (KUMJ). 2007; 5(1):60-2.

Purohit KR, Jyotsna PSR. Electrolyte disturbances in Acute Diarrhea. Indian J Pediatr. 2014.38:393-5.

Ahmed I, Webb JK Childhood Diarrhoea in S. India with particular reference to fluid and electrolyte disturbance. Indian J Child Health 2013.12(2):85-91.

Samadi AR, Wahed MA, Islam MR, Ahmed SM consequences of hyponatremia and hypernatremia in children with acute diarrhoea in Bangladesh. Br Med J. 2014;286(6366): 671-3.