Convulsive status epilepticus in children: clinical profile and outcome in a tertiary care hospital

Madhu P. K., Krithika R.


Background: The outcome of status epilepticus (SE) depends on various determinants such as age, type and duration of SE, etiology, management and associated comorbidities. This study was undertaken to describe the clinical profile and outcome of children with convulsive status epilepticus presenting to pediatric intensive care unit (PICU).

Methods: Eighty-seven children between the age group 1 month to 12 years who at presentation or during the PICU stay had convulsive status epilepticus (CSE) were included in the study. Clinical profile, etiological spectrum and outcome at the end of hospital stay were analysed.

Results: Median age of CSE was 4 years and 55 (63.2%) were below 5 years of age.  Acute symptomatic etiology of CSE was a significant risk factor (p= 0.03) for refractory status epilepticus (RSE) which was seen in 31 patients (39%). Acute symptomatic etiology was the cause of CSE in 46 (59.2%) children. Remote symptomatic (26.4%), cryptogenic (18.4%) and progressive (2.3%) were other etiologies. Neuro-infection (29.8%) and febrile seizures (11.5%) were the most common acute symptomatic causes. Mortality and morbidity occurred in 23 (26.4%) and 8 (9.2%) patients respectively. Remaining 56 (64.6%) returned to baseline condition at the end of hospital stay. Longer duration (p= 0.03) and acute symptomatic etiology (p=0.049) were significant risk factors for mortality.

Conclusions: Most common causes of CSE in children are acute symptomatic. Longer duration of status is associated with higher mortality. Hence, termination of seizure activity at the earliest, prudent management of respiratory or circulatory impairments in these children and improving the overall health care to prevent neuro-infections are important steps to improve outcome.


Children, Etiology, Outcome, Status epilepticus

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