Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in children with lower respiratory tract infection

Chandrashekhara ., Srinivasu Pampana


Background: Vitamin D has a role in lung growth, preserving lung function, and preventing pulmonary infection.

Methods: Hospital based cross sectional prospective study was done for a period of one year from January 2017 to December 2017, at the AJ Institute of Medical Sciences, Mangalore. A total of 69 patients were admitted with LRTI during the duration of 1 year, which includes pneumonia and bronchiolitis. Out of 69 patients admitted with LRTI, 10 were excluded from the study as they were not fulfilled the criteria.

Results: A total 59 children were enrolled in the study with LRTI, out of which 50 (84.7%) were vitamin D deficiency 6 (10.1%) were insufficiency and only 3 (5.08%) had normal vitamin D values, which was statistically highly significant with p value <0.05. Vitamin D deficiency is more common in less than 1 year and also in male child. Vitamin D deficiency is also common among preterm babies who were not on Vitamin D supplements, exclusively breast fed babies and among lower socio economic status especially in class 4. Authors found that 13 (22.03%) members were having a history of previous LRTI out of which 11 (84.6%), 2 (15.3%) had Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency respectively. Among study group, 16 (27.11%) were diagnosed to have bronchiolitis, out of which 10 (62.5%), 4 (25%), 2 (12.5%) patients were found to have Vitamin D deficiency, insufficiency and normal values respectively. Children who diagnosed as pneumonia were 43 (72.88%), out of them 40 (93%), 2 (4.6%), 1 (2.3%) were having deficiency, insufficiency and normal values of Vitamin D respectively.

Conclusions: Vitamin D deficiency is common in children with LRTI especially among exclusively breastfed, born preterm and children from lower socio economic status. Early recognition and treatment of Vitamin D deficiency can prevent morbidity associated with rickets and possibly frequent LRTI.


Children, Lower respiratory tract infections, Prevalence, Vitamin D deficiency

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