Nutritional status and common morbidities among school-going adolescents of rural areas of Vadodara, Gujarat: a cross sectional study

Prashant M. Modi, Sunil Pathak, Sagar Patel, Ritika Srivastva, Reya Thomas, Niharika Khullar


Background: Abnormal nutritional status i.e. underweight, overweight and obesity is increasing rapidly amongst adolescents irrespective of socioeconomic status and geography. This study was carried out to assess prevalence of abnormal nutritional status and common associated morbidities among school going adolescent of rural areas of Vadodara, Gujarat, India.

Methods: A cross sectional observational study was done among school going adolescents of rural areas of Vadodara, Gujarat. A predesigned and pretested semi-structured proforma was used to get relevant clinical details of study participants. Total 474 students aged 12-17 years participated in our study.

Results: Out of 474 enrolled adolescents, 16.67% were underweight, where as 3.8% and 2.95% were obese and overweight respectively. The prevalence of overweight and obesity were almost similar in both genders. Out of total 16.24% were stunted with predominance in boys compared to girls (p value: 0.039). Hypertension was found in 5.0% of participants with 3 times more prevalent in girls than boys (p value 0.011). Similarly, anemia was affecting both genders equally.

Conclusions: Although underweight is a known nutritional problem of adolescents from rural areas, overweight and obesity are also rapidly growing health issues among them now a days. With keeping in mind this increasing burden of abnormal nutritional status and associated morbidities, regular health check-up, education of parents and adolescents on healthy lifestyle and inclusion of adolescents in existing government programmes are essential measures to reduce these problems.


Anemia, Hypertension, Obesity, Rural areas, School going adolescents, Underweight

Full Text:



Adolescents Nutrition: a review of the situation in selected South East Asian countries. World Health Organization, Regional office of South East Asia, Executive Summary, 2005, Available at:

A profile of Adolescents and Youth in India: United Nations Population Fund (UNPF)-India, Census of India. 2011:1-6. Available at:".

Health needs of adolescents. Report of a WHO Expert committee Geneva Who, 1977 (WHO Technical report series, No 609), 7-9. Available at:;jsessionid=8900A5E7DBFCBA3EC7BDE02D588133B5?sequence=1.

Anand K, Kant S, Kapoor SK. Nutritional status of adolescent school children in rural north India. Indian Pediatr. 1999;36:810-6.

NFHS. Key findings report, National Family Health Survey (NFHS 3). 2005. Ministry of Health and Family welfare, Government of India. Available at: /nfhs3_national_report.html

Global Health Observatory data repository. Prevalence of thinness among children and adolescents, BMI < -2 standard deviation below the median, crude Estimates by country, among children 10-19 years. Available at: accessed 16 April 2019.

Global Health Observatory data repository. Prevalence of overweight among children and adolescents, BMI>+1 standard deviation above the median, crude Estimates by country, among children aged 10-19 years. Available at Accessed 16 April 2019.

National Rural Health Mission. Background note on Adolescent Health. Available at: nrhm-components/rmnch-a/adolescent-health/2014-02-25- 09-42-57/background-rksk.html

Khadilkar V, Yadav S, Agrawal KK, Tamboli S, Banerjee M, Cherian A, et al. Revised IAP growth charts for height, weight and body mass index for 5-to 18-year-old Indian children. Indian pediatrics. 2015;52(1):47-55.

Gulat S. Childhood Hypertension. Indian Pediatr. 2006;43:326-33.

Pati S, Swain S, Hussain MA, Chauhan AS. Prevalence and correlates of childhood obesity in suburban area of Odisha: A cross sectional study. Epidemiology, Biostat Public Health. 2014;11(3).

Pathak S, Modi P, Labana U, Khimyani P, Joshi A, Jadeja R, et al. Prevalence of obesity among urban and rural school going adolescents of Vadodara, India: A comparative study. Int J Contemp Pediatr. 2018;5:1355-9.

Prashanth SV, Latha GS, Veeresh Babu DV, Gururaj S. Obesity: changing outlook of Indian adolescent children: emerging and worrying trend. Int J Contemp Pediatr 2017;4(3):706-712

Ranjani H, Mehreen TS, Pradeepa R, Anjana RM, Garg R, Anand K, et al. Epidemiology of childhood overweight & obesity in India: A systematic review. Indian J Med Res. 2016 Feb;143(2):160.

Bhattacharya A, Basu M, Chatterjee S, Misra RN, Chowdhury G. Nutritional status and morbidity profile of schoolgoing adolescents in a district of West Bengal, Muller. J Med Sci Res. 2015;6(1):10-5.

Pal A, Pari AK, Sinha A, Dhara PC. Prevalence of undernutrition and associated factors: A cross-sectional study among rural adolescents in West Bengal, India. Int J Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2017;4(1):9-18.

Joice S. Assessment of nutritional status and morbidity pattern among school children of rural Puducherry. Acad Med J India. 2013 Nov 15;1(1).

Kulkarni MM, Varun N, Rathi P, Eshwari K, Ashok K, Kamath VG. Health status of school children in rural area of coastal Karnataka. Med J Dr. DY Patil University. 2016 Jan 1;9(1):31.

Dambhare DG, Bharambe MS, Mehendale AM, Garg BS. Nutritional status and morbidity among school going adolescents in Wardha, a Peri-Urban area. Online J Health Allied Sci. 2010;9(2).

Reddy D, Kushwaha AS, Kotwal A, Basannar DR, Mahen A. Study of blood pressure profile of school children 6–15 years in a rural setting of Maharashtra. Med J Armed Forces Ind. 2012;68(3):222-5.

Charan J, Buch N, Goyal JP, Kumar N, Parmar I, Shah VB. Prevalence of hypertension in school going children of Surat city, Western India. J Cardiovasc Dis Res. 2011;2(4):228-32.

Sundar JS, Adaikalam JM, Parameswari S, Valarmarthi S, Kalpana S, Shantaram D. Prevalence and determinants of hypertension among urban school children in the age group of 13-17 years in, Chennai, Tamilnadu. Epidemiol 2013;3(3):1-5.