DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2349-3291.ijcp20202609

Renal manifestations of sickle cell disease in children

Milind B. Kamble, Vidhya S. Totewad

Abstract


Background: Sickle cell disease prevalence is more in central part of India. This study tries to find extent of renal involvement, risk factors and screening tests in sickle cell disease.

Methods: Study was Cross sectional observational study. Demographic and clinical findings were recorded. Renal function tests like serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, eGFR were studied. Presence of microalbuminuria was checkeed. Ultrasonography abdomen was done to see the texture and corticomedullary differentiation of kidney.

Results: Total 143 patients were studied. Out of which, 117 homozygous (SS type), 26 heterozygous (AS type). Majority belonged to school going age group (i.e. 5 to 10 year age group) with male preponderance in homozygous state. Microalbuminuria was more common in crisis state (61.84% in SS pattern and 83.33% in AS pattern) as compared to steady state in both SS and AS pattern patients. Dipstic method detected more proteinuria than heat coagulation suggesting dipstick method superior to heat coagulation test. Low eGFR was common in patients with SS pattern as compared to patients with AS pattern and was significantly associated with microalbuminuria in both steady state and crisis state. Abnormal USG was seen 3.44% in patients with SS pattern. Renal involvement started below 5 years of age and then increases with age, homozygous childrens in crisis state are affected more.

Conclusions: Renal involvement is common in sickle cell anemia i.e it is seen in 50% of the patients. Increasing age, male sex and homozygous state were risk factors. Simple test like dipstic method and heat coagulation test can be used as screening test to detect microalbumiburia, with dipstic method being superior. Presence of microalbuminuria can detect early renal involvement in sickle cell disease. This will help in early diagnosis and management of such patients which avoids further renal complications and thus prevents mortality and morbidity.


Keywords


Blood urea nitrogen, eGFR, Microalbuminuria, Sickle cell anemia, Seum creatinine

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