DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2349-3291.ijcp20202618

Blood pressure distribution in relation with age, anthropometric measurements and socio economic status among school children of Warangal city, Telangana, India

Mohd Sirazuddin, Najma Farheen, Shirisha Navley

Abstract


Background: Hypertension is the one major global burden disease, causes 7.5 million deaths i.e.12.8%. Coronary Heart Disease Prevails 3-4% rural and 8-10% of urban population under 20 year’s age in India. Two fold rise in rural & six fold rise in urban areas since four decades. Environmental and Genetic factors i.e. Sex, BSA, obesity, family history of hypertension, dietary habits, physical activity, stress, race, ethnicity and socio economic status influence on children and adolescent. Many studies have established normal standards of BP for the children of different ages and races in their countries. Indian children cannot be adopted due to differences in ethnic, socio-economic, dietetic, environmental and emotional factors.

Methods: A cross sectional study done with 2422 children of 5 to 16 years age school children, selected from 13 Schools (Government and Private) of Urban and Rural areas of Warangal.

Results: A linear increase in mean BP with age, sex, weight, height, social status and locality. DBP has strong negative correlation with sex. i.e. female have high DBP and children of lower class and rural area has high DBP. 54 children <85th and 95th percentile and 5 children >95th percentile has comparatively high mean BP, 27 children with history of Hypertension in parents are >85th and 95th percentiles. Positive correlation with BMI in both sexes studied. A multivariate regression study confers positive strong correlation of Mean SBP and DBP with anthropometry.

Conclusions: Observed similar results of SBP and DBP in both sexes, linear Increase in mean SBP and DBP with increasing age, weight, height and BMI. Family history of hypertension and high SES had direct correlation to SBP and DBP; class I SES has higher Mean SBP than class III SES.


Keywords


Body mass index, Body surface area, School children, Systolic blood pressure, Diastolic blood pressure, Socioeconomic status

Full Text:

PDF

References


Srinivas HA, Harisha G, Thibbegowda CD, Pushpalatha K, Susheela C. A Study of Blood Pressure Profile in Rural School Children of Kolar Taluka. Inter J Scien Study. 2014;1(5):24-8.

Tabassum N, Zulfia K, Khan Iqbal KM, Mohammed AA. Shaad A, FNB Blood pressure profile and its determinants: A study in adolescent school childre. J. Preventive Cardiol. Feb 2015;4(3):685-91.

Ujjanappa S, Shreyas M. A Study on Hypertension in School Children of Chitradurga. 2014;14(1).

Singhal V, Agal P, Kamath N. The Prevalence of Elevated Blood Pressure and the Association of Obesity in Asymptomatic Female Adolescent Offsprings of Hypertensive and Normotensive Parents. J Clin Diag Resea. 2012 Sep 1;6(7):1158-61.

Prineas RJ. Blood pressure in children and adolescents. In: Bulpitt CJ, 20th ed. Epidemiology of hypertension. New York: Elsevier; Birkenhager WH and Reid JL, eds. Handbook of hypertension. 2000: 86-105.

Anand NK, Tandon L. Prevalence of hypertension in school going children. Indian Paediatr. 1996; 38:377-81.

Raj M, Sundaram KR, Paul M, Kumar RK. Blood pressure distribution in Indian children. Indian Pediatr. 2010 Jun 1;47(6):477-85.

Narang R, Saxena A, Ramakrishnan S, Dwivedi SN, Bagga A. Oscillometric blood pressure in Indian school children: Simplified percentile tables and charts. Indian Pediatr. 2015 Nov 1;52(11):939-45.

Agarwal VK, Sharan R, Srivastava AK, Kumar P, Pandey CM. Blood pressure profile in children of age 3-15 years. Indian Pediatr. 1983;20(12):921-5.

Taksande A, Chaturvedi P, Vilhekar K, Jain M. Distribution of blood pressure in school going children in rural area of Wardha district, Maharashtra, India. Ann Pediatr Cardiol. 2008;1(2):101-6.

Verma M, Chhatwal J, George SM. Biophysical profile of blood pressure in school children. Indian Paediatr. 1995;32:749-53.

Durrani AM, Fatima W. Determinants of blood pressure distribution in school children. The European J Publ Health. 2012 Jun 1;22(3):369-73.

Singhal V, Agal P, Kamath N. The Prevalence of Elevated Blood Pressure and the Association of Obesity in Asymptomatic Female Adolescent Offsprings of Hypertensive and Normotensive Parents. J Clin Diagnos Resea. 2012 Sep 1;6(7):1158-61.

Vivek V, Singh SK. Prevalence of Hypertension in Gujarati School Going Children and Adolescents in. Natl J Community Med. 2012;3(3):452-7.

Laroia D, Shanna M. Diwedi V, Belapurkar KM. Mathur PS. Profile of blood pressure in normal school children. Indian Paediatr, 1989;26(6):531-6.

Gupta AK. Influence of family history of morbid cardiovascular events on blood pressure levels of school children. Indian Paediatr. 1991 Feb;28(2):131-9.

Durrani AM, Fatima W. Determinants of blood pressure distribution in school children. Eur J Public Health. 2012 Jun 1;22(3):369-73.

Ramalingam S, Chacko T. Blood pressure distribution and its association with anthropometric measurements among Asian Indian adolescents in an urban area of Tamil Nadu. Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2014 Sep 1;3(9):1100-4.

Gupta AK, Ahamed AJ. Normal BP and the evaluation of sustained blood pressure elevation in childhood. Indian Paediatr. 1990;27:32-41.

Nanaware NL, Gavkare AM, Surdi AD. Study of correlation of body mass index (BMI) with blood pressure in school going children and adolescents. Int J Recent Trends Sci Technol. 2011;1(1):20-6.

Chiolero A, Cachat F, Burnier M, Paccaud F, Bovet P. Prevalence of hypertension in schoolchildren based on repeated measurements and association with overweight. J Hypertens. 2007;25(11):2209-17.

Sundar JS, Adaikalam JM, Parameswari S, Valarmarthi S, Kalpana S, Shantharam D. Prevalence and determinants of hypertension among urban school children in the age group of 13-17 years in, Chennai, Tamilnadu. Epidemiology. 2013;3(3):2161-1165.

Prasad S, Kumara S, Singh J, Kumar L, Community Based study on distribution of blood pressure and its correlates among school going children of Nalanda District. IAM. 2017;4(6):187-91.

Madhusudhan K, Betham R, Jampana VR. Study of blood pressure profile and correlation of hypertension with age, sex, anthropometric measurements (weight, height, body mass index), socio economic status and hereditary factors in school going children. Int J Contemp Pediatr. 2017 Jan;4(1):19-27.