Evaluation of risk factors for perinatal asphyxia in a tertiary care hospital in Bangalore: an observational prospective study

Somashekhar Chikkanna, Kavya S., Saravanan P., Nagaraj M. V.


Background: Perinatal asphyxia is an insult to fetus or newborn due to lack of oxygen (hypoxia) or lack of perfusion (ischemia) to various organs of sufficient magnitude and duration. Prenatal asphyxia is one of the major causes of early neonatal mortality in India. Our goal was to evaluate risk factors of perinatal asphyxia.

Methods: Observational prospective study on 100 babies delivered in our hospital consecutively and requiring resuscitation were included.

Results: The mean age of mothers was 23.5 years. 54% neonates were born to primiparous mothers. Anaemia was widely prevalent in the mothers of neonates requiring resuscitation. The major maternal risk factors for newborns requiring resuscitation were pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) (46%), oligohydramnios (41%), polyhydramnios (30%) and meconium stained liquor (28%). The fetal factors associated with resuscitation of newborns were intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) (30%), prematurity (25%), meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) (20%), and neonatal seizures (36%). Mortality was highest in hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) stage 3 with 11%.

Conclusions: The most common maternal risk factors for newborns requiring resuscitation was PIH followed by oligohydramnios, polyhydramnios and meconium stained liquor. IUGR was the most common fetal risk factor followed by, prematurity, MAS and neonatal seizures.


Perinatal asphyxia, Prematurity, Seizures, PIH, IUGR

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