Active versus expectant management of preterm premature rupture of membrane before 34 weeks and neonatal outcome

Gouda A. P. Kartikeswar, Dhyey I. Pandya, Siddharth Madabhushi, Vivek M. Joshi, Sandeep Kadam


Background: Preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) predisposes the mother for chorioamnionitis, endometritis, bacteremia and neonate to preterm delivery related complication. There is often dilemma regarding the management of PPROM in mothers with gestational age (GA) <34 weeks.

Methods: A retrospective cohort study conducted in a tertiary care hospital over two year period. Neonates delivered before 34 weeks were enrolled and categorized into active management (AM) and expectant management (EM) group. Associated risk factors, duration of PPROM and latency period, Neonatal outcomes like sepsis, morbidity, duration of respiratory support, duration of NICU stay compared between groups.

Results: Out of total 197 cases, AM group had 91 babies. Active management resulted in earlier delivery [mean GA (SD): 30.88(1.8) VS 31(2.1) weeks], higher number of caesarian section (76.9% versus 53.8%), lesser birth weight {1233.6 (±282.9) versus 1453.39 (±380.6) gm} and more ELBW babies (23.1% versus 7.5%). EM resulted in significantly higher antenatal steroid cover (73.6% in AM versus 89.6% in EM) and lesser need of surfactant for RDS [42.9% versus 28.3%]. Significant difference was found for NICU stay days {mean (SD): 25.46 (16.8) versus 20.94 (17.5)}. No difference found between respiratory support days [median (IQR) 2 (0, 6) versus 2 (0, 7)]. No significant differences found in incidence of maternal chorioamnionitis, NEC, sepsis, BPD and ROP. Early delivery resulted in higher mortality though that was statistically not significant.

Conclusions: Gestational age at delivery is more important predictor of neonatal outcome then PPROM in early preterm.



PPROM, Preterm, NICU, Invasive ventilation, Chorioamnionitis

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