DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2349-3291.ijcp20162360

Study on incidence of congenital anomalies in a rural teaching hospital, Telangana, India

Jayalakshmi Pabbati, Preethi Subramanian, Sudharshan Raj C., Sadhana N., Raghava Rao

Abstract


Background: Congenital anomalies (CA) include abnormalities in the new born baby’s structure, function or body metabolism which usually lead to physical and mental disabilities and can even be fatal sometimes. The purpose of the study is to find out overall incidence of congenital malformation and to identify the high risk groups.

Methods: A Longitudinal study was done on 4628 neonates in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Pediatrics in Mediciti Institute of Medical Sciences, Ghanpur, Hyderabad. All babies born (live and still born) were examined; anomalies documented in a pre-designed proforma within 24hrs of birth and were further followed for 72hrs. Only visible congenital anomalies (CA) were noted in still born neonates. Relevant maternal and family history was also noted. Whenever required, X-rays, ultrasonography and echocardiography of the newborn were performed.

Results: The overall incidence of CA was 4.08%. The most common system involved is the musculoskeletal system (37.6%) followed by central nervous system (22.75%). Among the fetal factors, prematurity, stillbirth and low birth weight were significantly associated with high incidence of CA (p <0.01). Higher risk of anomalies were observed in babies of multiparous (>3 gestation) mothers (7.6% vs 3.96%), mothers with bad obstetric history (5.3% vs 4.04%) and with diabetes (5.5% vs 4.06%).

Conclusions: This study brings to light the burden of CA and relevant risk factors in a rural setting which is likely to emerge as one of the leading causes of morbidity & mortality in the future.


Keywords


Congenital anomalies, Musculoskeletal system, Risk factors, Born

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