DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2349-3291.ijcp20214940

Effect of maternal hemoglobin and iron status on fetal hemoglobin, iron status, growth and maturity

Mohammad Moaaz Kidwai, V. R. Anand, Deepika Gulathi

Abstract


Background: Iron deficiency anemia during pregnancy is a major health issue in India. However, the status of iron stores in infants born to iron depleted mothers remains controversial and inadequately investigated. The present study is therefore an attempt to understand whether maternal anemia and iron stores have any significant effect on iron status and growth of fetus.

Methods: This is a prospective, cross-sectional, hospital based study conducted at Mata Chanan Devi Hosital, Janakpuri, New Delhi. Hemoglobin and iron profile of 100 newborns and their mothers were taken. Mothers were divided into anemic and non anemic group to see the effect of maternal anemia on fetus.

Results: A total of 100 newborns and their mothers were analysed. Cord hemoglobin and iron profile was significantly reduced in anemic compared to non anemic group. Birth weight of newborn was significantly reduced only in moderately anemic group as compared to non anemic group but there was no difference seen in length and head circumference.

Conclusions: Maternal serum ferritin levels should be measured for the diagnosis of occult iron deficiency in the fetus so that timely measures can be taken to prevent iron deficiency anemia in the newborn.


Keywords


Fetal hemoglobin, Fetal anemia, Anemia of pregnancy, Cord ferretin, Low birth weight

Full Text:

PDF

References


Ronnenberg AG, Wood RJ, Wang X, Xing H, Chen C, Chen D, et al. Preconception hemoglobin and ferritin concentrations are associated with pregnancy outcome in a prospective cohort of Chinese women. J Nutr. 2004;134(10):2586-91.

Scholl T, Hediger M. Anemia and iron-deficiency anemia: Compilation of data on pregnancy outcome. Am J Clin Nutr. 1994;59:492-500.

Scholl T. Maternal iron status: Relation to fetal growth, length of gestation, and iron endowment of the neonate. Nutr Rev. 2011;69(1):23-9.

Zhou L, Yang W, Hua J, Deng C, Tao X, Stoltzfus R. Relation of hemoglobin measured at different times in pregnancy to preterm birth and low birth weight in Shanghai, China. Am J Epidemiol. 1998; 148:998-1006.

Rodriguez-Bernal C, Rebagliato M, Ballester F. Maternal nutrition and fetal growth: the role of iron status and intake during pregnancy. Nutr Diet Suppl. 2012;425-37.

Sandhya V, Shruti P, Rau A. Iron store status in newborns born to anemic and non-anemic mothers. J Pediatr Sciences. 2012;4(1):118.

Kelly A, Macdonald D, McDougall A. Oboservations on maternal and fetal ferritin concentrations at term. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1978; 85(5):338-43.

Fenton V, Cavill I, Fisher J. Iron stores in pregnancy. Brit J Haematol. 1977;37:145-8.

Report of working group on anemia. Available at: https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/62087. Accessed on 20 Septemner 2021.

Kalaivani K. Prevalence & Consequences of anaemia in pregnancy. Indian J Med Res. 2009;627-33.

Jieshao JL, Raghavendra R, Michael KG, Niko K, Barbara TF, Zheng-Yan Z, Betsy L. Maternal serum ferritin concentration is positively associated with newborn iron stores in women with low ferritin status in late pregnancy. J Nutr. 2012;142:2004-9.

Terefe B, Birhanu A, Nigussie P, Tsegaye A. Effect of maternal iron deficiency anemia on the iron store of newborns in Ethiopia. Anemia. 2015;2015:1-6.

El-Farrash R, Ismail E, Nada A. Cord blood iron profile and breast milk micronutrients in maternal iron deficiency anemia. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2012; 58(2):233-8.

Ajayi O. Iron stores in pregnant Nigerians and their infants at term. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1988;42(1):23-8.

Bhargava M, Iyer PU, Kumar R, Ramji S, Kapani V, Bhargava SK. Relationship of maternal serum ferritin with foetal serum ferritin, birth weight and gestation. J Trop Pediatr. 1991;37(4):149-52.

Agrawal RM, Tripathi AM, Agarwal KN. Cord blood haemoglobin, iron and ferritin status in maternal anaemia. Acta Paediatr.1983;72(4):545-8.

El Guindi W, Prnost J, Carles G, Largeaud M, El Gareh N, Montoya Y, Arbeille P. Severe maternal anemia and pregnancy outcome. J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod. 2004;506-9.

Sukrat B, Wilasrusmee C, Siribumrungwong B, McEvoy M, Okascharoen C, Attia J, Thakkinstian A. Hemoglobin concentration and pregnancy outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Biomed Res Int. 2013;2013:1-9.

Kumar K, Asha N, Murthy D, Sujatha M, Manjunath V. Maternal anemia in various trimesters and its effect on newborn weight and maturity: an observational study. Int J Prev Med. 2013;4(2):193-9.

Singla P, Tyagi M, Kumar A, Dash D, Shankar R.

Fetal growth in maternal anaemia. J Trop Pediatr. 1997;43(2):89-92.

Lee HS, Kim MS, Kim MH, Kim YJ, Kim WY. Iron status and its association with pregnancy outcome in Korean pregnant women. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2006; 60(9):1130-5.

Teletar B, Serdar C, Ayca V, Ethem E, Yaesmin A. The effect of maternal anemia on anthropometric measurements of the newborn. Saudi Med J. 2009;30(3):409-12.

Lelic M, Bogdanovic G, Ramic S, Brkicevic E. influence of maternal anemia during pregnancy on placenta and newborns. Med Arch. 2014;68(3):184.

Batool A, Ibironke O, Molin W, Donna S, Majid E, Wafaie W. Anaemia, prenatal iron use, and risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes: systematic review and meta-analysis. Br Med J. 2013;346: f3443.