Pattern of congenital malformations in new-borns: a hospital based retrospective study

Baljinder Kaur, Surinder Kaur, Tanya Thakkar, Kirti Sood, Navreet Kaur, Avneet Kaur, Harjot Kaur


Background: Congenital malformation in new-borns is a major public health problem. Identification of the pattern of congenital malformations and hence control of birth defects is an urgent need.

Methods: This retrospective study was carried out in neonatal care unit (NICU) of GMC and RH Patiala, Punjab. All the deliveries conducted from January 2020 to December 2020 were included in the study. All the new born babies were thoroughly examined for the presence of congenital malformations. Detailed maternal history was recorded so as to evaluate association of various maternal risk factors with the congenital malformations. Collected data was analyzed on statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) software, a p value of less than 0.05 was considered significant.

Results: A total of 3962 babies were delivered at GMC and Rajindra Hospital, Patiala during the study period. Out of this, 91 (2.29%) new-borns were identified with congenital malformations. The most common system involved was musculoskeletal 40 (43.9%) followed by central nervous system 24 (26.4%). Among maternal and fetal risk factors; parental consanguinity, maternal under nutrition/obesity, positive history of a congenital anomaly (CA) in the family, and still birth/intrauterine deaths and ambiguous sex of the newborn baby were significantly associated with higher frequency of CAs (p<0.05).

Conclusions: Congenital malformations in new-borns becoming the emerging cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality after neonatal infections. Institution of preventive measures with more focus on young mother’s nutrition, provision of health education and early diagnosis of congenital malformations during antenatal period can help to curb the burden of this problem.


Anomalies, Malformations, Neonatal, Antenatal, Congenital

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